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英语老师专业术语必备  

2014-09-15 21:36:23|  分类: 资源推荐 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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语法 grammar        

句法syntax                    词法morphology         

结构structure                层次 rank                     

句子 sentence               从句clause                     

词组phrase                   词类 part of speech    

单词 word                     实词 notional word       

 虚词 structural word   介词 preposition        

连词conjunction        感叹词exclamation         形容词 adjective

名词 noun                      

 专有名词 proper noun                     普通名词common noun           

可数名词 countable noun                不可数名词uncountable noun      

 抽象名词abstract noun                     具体名词 concrete noun

 物质名词 material noun                 集体名词collective noun        个体名词individual noun           

 

动词verb

 主动词 main verb                         及物动词transitive verb           

不及物动词 intransitive verb         系动词 link verb                 

助动词auxiliary verb                      情态动词modal verb

 规则动词 regular verb              不规则动词irregular verb         

短语动词phrasal verb                      限定动词 finite verb            

 非限定动词 infinite verb                使役动词causative verb

 感官动词 verb of senses            动态动词event verb                   静态动词 state verb

 

副词 adverb                     

 方式副词 adverb of manner          程度副词adverb of degree      

 时间副词 adverb of time                  地点副词adverb of place              

修饰性副词 adjunct                       连接性副词conjunct

 疑问副词 interrogative adverb       关系副词relative adverb         

 

代词 pronoun

 人称代词 personal pronoun                  物主代词possessive pronoun    

反身代词 reflexive pronoun                    相互代词reciprocal pronoun                   

指示代词demonstrative pronoun           疑问代词 interrogative pronoun                

 关系代词relative pronoun                      不定代词 indefinite pronoun                   

 物主代词possessive pronoun                  名词性物主代词nominal possessive pronoun

 形容词性物主代词adjectival possessive pronoun

 

冠词 article                

 定冠词definite article          不定冠词 indefinite article

 

数词 numeral

基数词 cardinal numeral       序数词 ordinal numeral          分数词fractional numeral 

 

形式 form

原形 base form                           单数形式singular form              

复数形式 plural form                  限定动词 finite verb form           非限定动词non-finite verb form

 

从句 clause

从属句 subordinate clause              并列句coordinate clause       

 名词从句nominal clause               定语从句 attributive clause      

状语从句 adverbial clause              宾语从句object clause

主语从句 subject clause                  同位语从句appositive clause

时间状语从句adverbial clause of time               地点状语从句adverbial clause of place

方式状语从句adverbial clause of manner          让步状语从句adverbial clause of concession

原因状语从句adverbial clause of cause              结果状语从句adverbial clause of result

目的状语从句adverbial clause of purpose         条件状语从句adverbial clause of condition

真实条件状语从句adverbial clause of real condition
非真实条件状语从句adverbial clause of unreal condition

含蓄条件句adverbial clause of implied condition

错综条件句adverbial clause of mixed condition


句子 sentence                      

简单句 simple sentence                                 并列句 compound sentence

复合句 complex sentence                              并列复合句compound complex sentence 

陈述句 declarative sentence                           疑问句 interrogative sentence

一般疑问句 general question                          特殊疑问句 special question  

选择疑问句 alternative question                       反义疑问句 disjunctive question

附加疑问句 tag question                                   感叹疑问句 exclamatory question

修辞疑问句 rhetorical question                        基本句型 basic sentence pattern      

存在句 existential sentence                             肯定句positive sentence       

 否定句 negative sentence                              祈使句imperative sentence      

省略句elliptical sentence                                  感叹句exclamatory sentence                  

 

句子成分 members of sentences

主语 subject       谓语predicate              宾语 object         双宾语dual object

直接宾语 direct object          间接宾语indirect object        复合宾语 complex object

同源宾语 cognate object        补语complement              主补 subject complement

宾补 object complement        表语predicative                定语attribute        

同位语 appositive                状语adverbial        

 

句法关系 syntactic relationship

并列coordinate                     从属 subordination                     修饰modification

前置修饰 pre-modification    后置修饰post-modification       限制restriction

双重限制 double-restriction    非限制non-restriction

 

 number                 

单数形式singular form           复数形式 plural form

规则形式 regular form        不规则形式irregular form          

 

 case

普通格common case   所有格possessive case   主格nominative case   宾格objective case

 

 gender

阳性 masculine       阴性feminine          通性common        中性neuter

 

人称 person

第一人称 first person        第二人称 second person         第三人称third person

 

时态 tense

过去将来时 past future tense                           过去将来进行时past future continuous tense

过去将来完成时past future perfect tense        一般现在时present simple tense

一般过去时 past simple tense                         一般将来时future simple tense

现在完成时 past perfect tense                         过去完成时present perfect tense

将来完成时 future perfect tense                      现在进行时present continuous tense

过去进行时 past continuous tense                  将来进行时future continuous tense

过去将来进行时 past future continuous tense  

现在完成进行时present perfect continuous tense 

过去完成进行时past perfect continuous tense

 

语态 voice               主动语态active voice              被动语态passive voice

 

语气 mood

陈述语气 indicative mood     祈使语气imperative mood      虚拟语气 subjunctive mood

 

否定negation
否定范围 scope of negation             全部否定 full negation         

局部否定 partial negation                 转移否定 shift of negation 

 

语序 order

自然语序 natural order                 倒装语序 inversion        

全部倒装 full inversion                 部分倒装partial inversion           

 

直接引语 direct speech                

 间接引语indirect speech

自由直接引语 free direct speech          

自由间接引语 free indirect speech

 

一致 agreement / concord

主谓一致subject-predicate agreement/concord      语法一致grammatical agreement/concord

概念一致 notional agreement/concord                    就近原则principle of proximity

 

语音 pronunciation   

语调 tone      升调rising tone     降调 falling tone       降升调falling-rising tone

 

文体 style

正式文体 formal                        非正式文体informal             口语 spoken/oral English  

 套语 formulistic expression    英国英语 British English      

美国英语 American English

 

感情色彩 emotional coloring  

褒义 commendatory           贬义derogatory               幽默 humorous
讽刺 sarcastic                 挖苦 ironic

用法 usage                   强调 emphasis                重复repetition 

 

修辞手法 figures of speech / rhetorical device

明喻simile                          隐喻metaphor                      提喻synecdoche

拟人personification            夸张hyperbole                   

叠言rhetorical repetition

借代metonymy                   委婉语euphemism              拟声onomatopoeia

头韵法alliteration                 拟人personification             通感synesthesia

反语irony         双关语pun        矛盾修辞法oxymoron       轭式搭配zeugma

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